Types of Shots

Long Shot (LS): a relative term, a shot taken from a sufficient distance to show a landscape, a building, or
a large crowd
Medium Shot (MS): also relative, a shot between a long shot and a close-up that shows people from the
waist up
Close-up (CU): a shot of a face or object that fills the screen completely
Extreme Close-up (ECU): a shot of a small object or a part of a face that fills the screen

Camera Angles

Bird's Eye View: the camera is placed directly above the action being photographed
High Angle (h/a): the camera looks down at what is being photographed
Low Angle (l/a): the camera looks up at what is being photographed
Oblique Angle: the frame is tilted laterally on its axis

Camera Movement

Pan: the camera moves horizontally on a fixed base
Tilt: the camera points up or down from a fixed base
Tracking (Dolly) Shot: the camera moves through space on a wheeled truck (or dolly), but stays in the same plane
Boom: the camera moves up or down through space
Zoom: not a camera movement, but a shift in the focal length of the camera lens to give the impression that the camera is getting closer to or farther from an object


Cut: the most common type of transition in which one scene ends and a new one immediately begins
Fade-out/Fade-in: one scene gradually goes dark and the new one gradually emerges from the darkness
Dissolve: a gradual transition in which the end of one scene is superimposed over the beginning of the a new one
Wipe: an optical effect in which one shot appears to "wipe" the preceding one from the screen. Special wipes include flip wipes, iris wipes, star wipes, etc.

Sources of Sound in Film

Voice-over narration, dialogue, sound effects, and music








Paige Mayhew OWP 2000